OTHER GODS

The recorded presence of Elohim has created confusion amongst scholars, some concluding that the ancient Hebrews were polytheistic (believing in many gods). However this point of view is unlikely considering the Holy Bible (Torah) refers to a singular entity or the True God (Elohim emet or Eloha). In reality it is the existence of several regional administrators (magistrates) which led the ancient people to call upon the Supreme God using the same titles that certain Elohim held.

“Among God’s entourage, there is often a particular principal agent or vizier, who can be likened to God in appearance, name and attributes/functions.”  – L.W. Hurtado

Throughout the old testament, biblical writers identified and detailed the actions of various administrators or Elohim magistrates. In the New Testament the word ‘gods’ is translated from the Greek word ‘theos’, figuratively meaning magistrate. In ancient times magistrates were experts in the law and belonged to a council of chiefs or justice administrators. The heads of office and leaders of government were given titles such as magistrate regardless of their position within the state or role within the council. The concept of Elohim magistrates extends to the Biblical interpretation of a Divine Council and to its members whom held similar titles to those of the Supreme God, the Heavenly Father. Thus it becomes difficult for readers of the Holy Bible (Torah) to properly identify who is who. Some names attributed to the Supreme God are simply titles, often applied as well to the administrator Elohim, such as “Lord” or “Adonai”. Furthermore, various modern names attributed to God are due to human error (mistranslations) or in reality refer to a separate being altogether. For example the names Yah (Ya), El, and Al are ancient names of ‘gods’ (in reality Elohim) with origins in Persian and Canaanite lore.

“Due to a failure to distinguish between myth and history, biblical interpreters have implicitly accepted the view that Elism was an old form of Yahwism because the Elohist (Ex 3:13-15) and the Priestly Writer (Ex 6:2-3) declared it so. Actually, but a moment’s reflection will show that El and Yahweh are not the same god.” – Dr L.M. Barre

Scholars have located various epithets of El and Baal attributed to Yah. These titles confirm the identity of the name Yah within a structure of Ugaritic and Canaanite lords (Elohim) serving amongst a divine council known to Sumerians as Ukkin and to Egyptians as Ennead. The Sumerian word Ukkin is also a symbol for a royal court of the Divine, known also as the Divine Council. The Holy bible (Torah) affirms the Hebrew worldview that the Supreme God has no rival, this despite the fact the scripture both affirms and denies the existence of ‘other gods’. Those familiar with the role of the Divine Council as well with the Elohim recognize that the other beings (other gods) are incomparable to the True Supreme God. Thus readers of the Holy Bible should interpret the existence of other gods as literal mighty beings (Earth Elohim) amongst a host of divine administrators or magistrates, whom the Supreme God is beyond comparison and ultimately sits in judgement over. The theological point being that there is but One Supreme God, the Heavenly Father, and he alone is King above all other gods and Elohim.

“The Sons of God, who first appear briefly in Genesis 6:1–4, were worshipped by the gentile peoples of the world as their “gods” with God the Father’s permission both before and after the flood of Noah. The Sons of God were designated or allotted to rule gentile nations in religious matters by YHWH Himself.” – David Sielaff

Deuteronomy 29:26 –Young’s Literal–

and they go and serve other gods, and bow themselves to them — gods which they have not known, and which He hath not apportioned to them;

Deuteronomy 29:26 –Darby’s–

and they went and served other gods, and bowed down to them, gods whom they knew not, and whom he had not assigned to them.

Parallel Commentaries:

“The term “allotted” in Hebrew has the sense and meaning of something being “given” or “divided.” 34 If YHWH had allotted other Elohim to Israel — given them Elohim other than or in addition to Himself — it would have been proper for Israel to go to, serve, and worship other Elohim, just as it was proper for nations (other than Israel) to serve and worship other Elohim. 35 After all, YHWH allotted the various Elohim to the nations who worshipped those Elohim.

YHWH, as the chief Elohim, reserved Israel to himself. YHWH was the Elohim of Israel, and the only Elohim of Israel. The gods of the other nations were the Sons of Elohim, beni ha-Elohim, which other nations could worship with YHWH’s permission, but they were to stay away from Israel. Those gods were allotted to the nations, they were not allotted to Israel (Deuteronomy 29:26 above).” – David Sielaff

The idea that the Supreme God assigned or appointed ‘other gods’ over man seems far fetched or even a dangerous interpretation for certain Orthodox Jews, as well as Christians, who claim that the ‘assigned gods’ of Deuteronomy are merely human beings or kings. The phrase ‘gods’ as it appears in this passage is literal, however, and never symbolic.

So in reality these ‘assigned gods’ were literal beings, not human, but rather Elohim magistrates. Earthly Elohim served man as their administrators and humans were appointed kingship based on the recommendation of these mighty beings. This concept is shared by the ancient Sumerians and would have been well known to the Canaanites as well as the Hebrews. In Sumerian literature after the flood of Noah (postdiluvian) the Apkallus (Seven Sages, Oannes) granted the shepherd Luagalbanda (whom the Bible calls Cush/Bel) with the kingdom of Ur (Uruk). The Sumerians viewed the Apkallus as Sages or administrators of the ancient world and described these beings as fish-like rather than as human kings.

1 Corinthians 8:5-6 –NIV–

“For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as indeed there are many “gods” and many “lords”), 6 yet for us there is but one God, the Father,…” 

Parallel Commentaries:

The apostle Paul acknowledges that in fact there exists ‘other gods’, however these beings are not equal to the Heavenly Father. Other beings are noted throughout the Holy Bible (Torah) as well as the Sumerian epics of Gilgamesh (Gilgames) and Anu. Thus a common theme of the ancient world was to acknowledged the presence of supper-natural beings which belonged to a Divine Council.

  “Each Son of Elohim was assigned as the god or El over a nation, a people. The inheritance of the nations was to be administered by the Sons of Elohim. It was intended for the Sons of Elohim to rule and judge the nations with justice (Psalm 82, they failed badly).” – David Sielaff

Deuternomy 32:8-9 —-

When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the Sons of God.

Parallel Commentaries:

“Ugaritic mythology plainly states that the head of its pantheon, El (who, like the God of the Bible, is also referred to as El Elyon, the “Most High”) fathered 70 sons, thereby setting the number of the “sons of El” (Ugaritic, bn ‘il ). An unmistakable linguistic parallel with the Hebrew text underlying the LXX reading was thus discovered, one which prompted many scholars to accept the LXX reading on logical and philological grounds:  God (El Elyon in Deut. 32:8) divided the earth according to the number of heavenly beings who already existed from the time of creation.” – Michael S Heiser  

“In other words, this is where the myths of the pagan gods of the nations came from. They were the Sons of God of Genesis chapter 6, Job chapters 1, 2, and 38:7, Psalm 29:1, Psalms 82 and 89, along with this mention in Deuteronomy 32:8. They were called the olden gods by many nations. In Greek mythology they were called the Titans. Sons of God were the “gods” [Elohim] of the nations. The Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Sons of God and the Greek Titans.” – David Sielaff

“It is true—and quite significant–that the God of Israel has no myth of origin. Not a trace of theogony can be found in the Hebrew bible. God has no nativity. But there do seem to be other divine beings in Genesis 1, to whom God proposes the creation of humanity, male and female together: “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (v. 26). When were these other divine beings created? They too seem to have been primordial. . . .From other biblical accounts of the divine assembly in session, it would appear that these “sons of God/gods” played an active roles and made fresh proposals to God, who nonetheless retained the final say.” – Jon Levenson

1 Chronicles 16:26 —-

“For all the gods of the peoples are idols, but the LORD made the heavens.”

2 Kings 19:18 —-

“And have cast their gods into the fire: for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone: therefore they have destroyed them.

Deuteronomy 6:14 –NIV–

Do not follow other gods; the gods of the peoples around you;

Deuteronomy 6:14 –Hebrew–

Yalak achar acher elohiym elohiym am cabiyb

Parallel Commentaries:

“The Egyptians, and Babylonians, and Phrygians, and Phoenicians were the first propagators of this superstition of making images, and of the mysteries: from whom it was transferred to the Greeks from the time of Cecrops downwards. But it was not till afterwards and at a considerable interval that Cronus and Rhea, Zeus and Apollo, and the rest were esteemed and honoured as gods.” – Epiphanius Chaldaen History

So via the evidence stated we can conclude that the ‘other gods’ of stone are false gods. These beings are not second string gods nor are they any kind of gods. These other beings were in reality at one point in time the magistrates (Earth Elohim) of the ancient world. Now these other gods are gone and in their place are stone monuments and idols.

Through English Gematria we are shown that the term ‘Other Gods’ is equal to the cosmic hex of the numerical 666.

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